Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability
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2015 9th Issue: Spy on global recycled water plant Top 10 - recycled water use and technical route

1.Water Factory 21

In 1975, the Orange County Water Authority in California built the worldĄŻs first recycled water plant using membrane treatment. This plant was called the Water Factory 21, and was located in Spring Valley. In 2008, the Water Authority Bureau constructed a new Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) to reclaim water to replace the Water Factory 21. Due to their outstanding achievements in the field of water reuse, California's Orange County Water District won the Lee Kuan Yew Water Award in 2014.

2. The NEWater Factory

Singapore NEWater is an Asian model of the water reclamation project. The NEWater project meets 30% of the water demand in Singapore . By 2060, NEWater will meet 55% of the nation's water needs. The project enabled Singapore to become an international water hub, and won the Stockholm Water Prize in 2007.

3. The Windhoek Goreangab Water Reclamation Plant

Windhoek Goreangab in Namibia, Africa, is the world's first project reusing municipal sewage as drinking water. The plant processes 4800 m3 water per day, and in its decades of operation, the plant has steadily  generated acceptable drinking water from used water. After expanding several times, the current rate of water reclamation is 21000 m3/day. The Winhoek plant proves that, using today's water treatment technology, waste water can be safely converted into drinking water.

4. The Monterey Recycled Water Project

Monterey Recycled Water is the first water reclamation used for agricultural irrigation. The factory was built in 1976, and producing 76,000 tons of recycled water a day, is the largest reclaimed water irrigation area in U.S.. This project has been a significant influence on the development of such projects in the rest of the world.

5. The American West Basin recycled water plant

The California West Basin recycling plant is a masterpiece of water reclamation. In order to server a variety of needs, the plant uses five different process routes:(1)  Secondary Effluent + sand filtration + disinfection; (2) the secondary nitration water + sand filtration + disinfection; (3) the secondary effluent + MF + RO( in low-pressure boiler); (4) secondary effluent + MF + RO (high pressure boiler ); and (5) the secondary effluent + lime softening + UV + H2O2. The five process satisfy the need for, respectively, irrigation, industrial cooling, high pressure boiler feed water, low pressure boiler feed water, and seawater barrier.

6. American UOSA recycled water plant

The Upper Occoquan Sewage Authority (UOSA)serves as a model using recycled water as indirect drinking water. The factory processes about 200000 tons of water per day. Its treatment process includes the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus secondary processing, lime precipitation, secondary re-carbonation, filtration, activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange, chlorination, disinfection and dechlorination. Reclaimed water accounted for about 8% of the reservoir inflow of transshipment.

7. The Australian Luggage Point recycled water plant

Luggage Point recycles water on a processing scale of 70000 tons/day. The treatment process includes chemical precipitation, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, UV disinfection, advanced oxidation, and multiple security measures. The secondary effluent after the plant's processing ,is near to drinking water. It can be used as drinking water when there is a need in Brisbane.

8. Tokyo Ariake Water Reclamation Center

The Ariake Center is a famous water recycling plant with a processing scale of 30000 tons/day. It uses secondary effluent to clean plant facilities, flush toilet, and clean the nearby subway after treatment of biological filter, ozone exposure, chlorine disinfection and high-speed filtered and other kinds of purposes.

9. Australia Gerroa sewage treatment plant

The Gerroa sewage treatment plant has an average processing rate of 2200 tons/day. It introduced various technical techniques after using the traditional wastewater biological treatment process ,such as the sand filter, ozone , biological activated carbon, microfiltration, and ultraviolet disinfection. Gerroa sewage treatment plant become one of the most famous sewage recycling plants in the southern hemisphere with a complex process and high quality effluent water.

10. Israel Shafdan recycled water plant

Shafdan recycles water plant on a processing scale of 350000 tons/day. After secondary processing system, it allows water to naturally soak into the ground , adopting soil processing, after allowing the water to be underground for 8 days and using an underground regeneration process, allowing the water to flow through the quality observation wells, then drawing it with the pumping well to meet the drinking water quality standard of reclaimed water in Israel. Finally, the plant sends the water to pipeline for senior agricultural irrigation purposes.

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